Bullet diameter would be the same, but you'd never get it to cycle due to the differences in case length. That would be my opinion. From some sort of revolver, I would expect they would be interchangeable so long as it handled the higher pressure of the 10mm over the .40. Case lengths here would not matter as much as the difference between .38 special and .357 are 4mm, whereas the 10mm is only 3mm longer than the .40
I think it's a no-no due to the fact the rimless auto cartridges fit in the chamber against the mouth of the case whereas revolver cartridges use the rim. Likewise, a .380 is a 9mm short but you can't (read shouldn't) run 380 in a 9. Not to mention the springs are sized for the more powerful recoil, so it might not cycle.
If you have a 10 and want to shoot 40, HOLY DIVER might make a trade.